Prostatectomy Definition | Robotic & Image Guided Surgery

The American Cancer Society estimates there will be about 268,490 new cases of prostate cancer in the United States alone this year. And 34 thousand deaths from it as well! In addition, as men age, their risk of developing prostate cancer increases. For some, surgery may be the best option to remove the prostate gland and prevent the spread of cancer. Robotic and image-guided surgery are two methods that have been shown to be safe and effective for prostatectomy.

Robotic surgery is a minimally invasive procedure that uses small incisions and a camera to guide the surgeon. This surgery has been shown to be safe and effective for prostatectomy.

Image-guided surgery is another minimally invasive option that uses pre-operative imaging to guide the surgeon. This surgery has also been shown to be safe and effective for prostatectomy.

Both robotic and image-guided surgery are options that offer many benefits over traditional open surgery, including less pain, fewer complications, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recoveries. If you are considering surgery to cure prostate cancer, talk to your doctor about these two options to see if one is right for you.

What is the prostate gland?

The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut and is surrounded by the urethral and the bladder. Urination tubes carry bladder fluid. The ducts are open to the urogenital part of the urinary system. There are three lobes – one in the middle and two on the side. The prostate gland has an innate reproductive capacity that secretes an alkaline fluid that forms part of sex (symbiosis). The ovarian muscle gland propels prostate fluid in the urine and other blood vessels to the urine, which is absorbed in the urethra. The prostate gland also secretes a small amount of seminal fluid. The prostate’s main function is to produce seminal fluid, which contains enzymes that liquefy the semen.

What is prostatectomy, and what are the different types

The Prostatectomy procedures involve removing the prostate and parts and wholes from it. Prostate glands are located below the bladder. The urethral surrounds the urus and passes urine into the penis. It is used for treating several problems in the prostate. This treatment has the most common use. The procedure of prostatectomy depends upon the patient’s condition. Options include surgery with robotic aid or open procedures.

There are several types of prostatectomies:

Radical prostatectomy: This is the most common type of prostatectomy. The surgeon removes the entire prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Lymph nodes may also be removed.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP): This is a less invasive surgery in which the surgeon inserts a scope through the urethra to remove parts of the prostate blocking urine flow.

Laparoscopic prostatectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgery in which the surgeon makes small incisions in the abdomen and inserts a scope to remove the prostate.

Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: This is a surgery in which the surgeon uses a robot to control the instruments.

Open prostatectomy: This is a traditional surgery in which the surgeon makes a large incision in the abdomen to remove the prostate.

Open or laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

The surgeon performs the surgery with invasive incisions or open prostatectomy using an open prostatectomy or the ophthalmic approach. Usually, these types of surgeries are not as widespread. During the laparoscopic prostatectomy, the surgeon cuts small incisions with surgical instruments that are specialized for removing prostate tissue and slit the prostate. 

The surgeon may hold the instruments either by hand and then use control panels to move their robotic arms, holding them in place. In recent years this technique of prostatectomy is becoming increasingly popular. Surgically invasive radical prostatectomy can provide similar results as open surgery.

Both of these types of prostatectomy have a few things in common. First, the surgeon removes the entire prostate, seminal vesicles, and surrounding tissue. To do this, the surgeon may need to make an incision either through your perineum or make an incision in your lower abdomen.

Why Surgery?

Prostate cancer will not disappear unless a radical prostatectomy is performed. RP can help treat prostate cancer by reducing the number of cancer cells in your prostate. In the process, prostate glands and surrounding tissues, such as vesicles, are removed. The seminal vesical cells are the two sacs connecting to vas deferenses – tubes that run across the testicle – which secrete semen. Other common reasons for prostate removal include the following: 

  • Inability to empty bowels, 
  • Recurrent bladder bleeding in prostates 
  • Bladder stones
  • Issues with urinary and sexual function
  • Urinary tract infection
  • And prostate enlargement.

The surgeon may perform radical prostatectomy using many methods. For example, enlarged prostate glands are called benign prostate hyperplasia or BPH. Prostatectomy is often done in a small-scale surgical fashion with robots.

How is a radical prostatectomy performed?

For a radical prostatectomy, you will be given either general anesthesia (which puts you to sleep) or spinal anesthesia (which numbs your lower body but keeps you awake). Next, the surgeon makes an incision in your lower abdomen and removes the prostate, seminal vesicles, and surrounding tissue. The surgeon may also remove lymph nodes around the prostate if they appear to be affected by cancer. Once the prostate is removed, the surgeon stitches the incision closed.

What are the risks of radical prostatectomy?

Radial prostatectomy is less risky than traditional procedures. Deaths or serious disabilities from prostatectomy are exceptionally rare. In the penis, important nerves enter the prostate. A skilled surgeon usually helps in protecting most of this nerve during surgery. Occasionally complications from a prostatectomy are caused. It includes urological infections and incontinence. Those are the signs you may struggle to control urine leaks and drudgeries. Incontinence is a medical condition that requires medical intervention. Erectile dysfunction. Prostate ovaries cause erections.

So, as with any surgery, there are some risks associated with radical prostatectomy, including:

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Blood clots
  • Urinary incontinence (leakage of urine)
  • Difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection
  • Reactions to medications

You should talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of radical prostatectomy and whether it is the right treatment option.

Radical prostatectomy is major surgery with potential risks and complications. You should discuss the risks and benefits of this surgery with your doctor to see if it is the right treatment option for you.

Who should have a radical prostatectomy?

The most effective treatment is the radical prostatectomy in men younger than 76. A prostate surgeon must first verify whether prostate cancer has spread outside the breast or prostate during prostate surgery. The risk for spread may be identified based upon a comparison of biopsy results with PSA level results. Suppose a patient or health history has not identified the disease. In that case, the doctor can perform an additional test such as MRI, CT, MRI, ultrasound, or MRI. If your prostate is showing signs of cancer, your gynecologist could recommend another treatment option besides surgery.

Preparing for Surgery

Depending on the type of tumor, your surgeon can conduct tests to check for any underlying causes. It is possible for MRI, CT MRI, bone scan, and PET procedures. If you have been diagnosed elsewhere, your UCSC doctor can perform another examination and review your biopsy slides. After this, they’ll arrange a “Prepare” appointment for you by telephone or on-call. One doctor assistant will explain how to prepare food and drinks.

The anesthesiologist will arrange a pre-operative assessment appointment for you, which is mandatory. You will be asked to arrive two hours before your surgery is scheduled to take place.

You should not eat or drink anything after midnight the night before your surgery is scheduled. If you have diabetes, please inform the staff so special arrangements can be made.

Before the procedure begins

Your doctor should give you an explanation of your procedure. You can sign the consent form and ask for your approval before doing so. Read this page carefully. The doctor may also do a comprehensive health exam to check a person’s health before the operation. You can take some blood tests as well as a diagnostic test. Usually, at midnight, you must fast eight days before the surgery.

During the procedure

Radical prostatectomy requires hospitalization. Different treatments may differ depending on your conditions and the practice of your physician and pharmacist. The general procedure following radical prostatectomy consists of retropubic or perineal techniques in which jewelry or items are removed. You are asked to take off clothes and be provided a dress to take off. You will need to empty your bladder before surgery. The line is pumped out into your hand and wrist via intravenous injection. If hairs appear over the surgical site, they can be cut out. The surgical area will be treated using antiseptics on the skin.

The procedure involves putting you under anesthetic. The specific amount of incisions depends on your surgical technique, the extent of the tumor, and your physician’s preference. According to your circumstance, surgeons can simply remove prostates or vesicles. In some cases, the surgeon may take the lymph nodes out of the tumor and undergo biopsies if necessary.

Leaving the hospital

Generally, the patient goes home on the day of surgery and typically at noon. Other patients stay at least ten days, sometimes leaving at the same time as the procedure. We’ll remove that tub before you get back. Your bladder catheter will continue functioning, and your nurse will inform you about the procedure. A number of health and nutrition tips will be provided to the user. Please note everything if possible. And should someone come along and take note? Then you won’t remember all the details you have.

What to expect after surgery?

Most men stay in the hospital for two to three days after surgery. After that, you’ll have a urinary catheter (tube) in your penis to drain urine from your bladder. You’ll also have a tube in your side called a Jackson-Pratt drain to remove any excess fluid from the area where the prostate was removed. These tubes will be removed before you go home.

You may have some pain and swelling in your groin area. You’ll be given pain medicine to help with this. You can also expect blood in your urine for the first few days after surgery. Your urine may also be cloudy or tinged with red. This is normal and will go away in time.

You’ll be taught how to do intermittent catheterization before you leave the hospital. This is a way to empty your bladder without having a urinary catheter. You’ll need to do this four to six times a day for the first two weeks after surgery.

You’ll likely feel tired and have less energy than usual for four to six weeks after surgery. It may take up to three months for your urinary function to return to normal. Therefore, you should avoid strenuous activity and heavy lifting for at least six weeks.

You’ll need to see your doctor for follow-up appointments so they can check your incisions, PSA levels, and urinary function. You may also need more tests or treatment if your pathology report shows that cancer has spread outside of the prostate.

Follow-up after surgery

You will get a follow-up visit by one of your medical professionals 8-12 months postoperatively. A blood sample is performed within two weeks of the appointment. Upon admission from the hospital, you will receive a lab slip requesting tests. If blood samples were drawn at an unlicensed UCSF lab, please check whether the UCSF lab will perform an ultra-sensitive PSA test for this. You can get a copy of the report upon request for your stay.

Additional treatment

Some patients do not require further surgery after radical prostatectomy. The pathology report and your ultra sensible PSA are factors that determine this decision. The PSA will drop down to a level undetectable upon undergoing a surgical procedure. Undetectable means your PSA levels have no effect. It does, however, mean the numbers on your PSA are lower than the lowest numbers a laboratory can determine. The current limit on PSA is 0.09 mg ng per mL with ultra-sensitive testing at the U. CSF laboratory and is 0.11 mg g per mL.

About robotic prostatectomy surgery

Robotic prostatectomy surgery is a surgery to treat prostate cancer. This surgery is performed using a robotic surgical system, which allows the surgeon to remove the prostate gland and surrounding lymph nodes through small incisions. Robotic prostatectomy surgery has several benefits over traditional open surgery, including a shorter hospital stay, less blood loss, and less pain and scarring. This surgery can be performed as an outpatient procedure or with a one-night hospital stay. Robotic prostatectomy surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia. The robotic surgical system is used during the surgery to make small incisions in the lower abdomen. The surgeon then inserts a thin tube, called a trocar, through these incisions. The robotic surgical system is then used to move the instruments and camera inside the abdomen. The surgeon views a 3D image of the prostate gland and surrounding tissues on a monitor in the operating room. The surgeon then uses the robotic surgical system to remove the gland and surrounding lymph nodes.

About Image-guided surgery

Image-guided surgery (IGS) is a minimally invasive surgery that uses imaging technology to guide the surgeon during the procedure. IGS can be used for various surgeries but is most commonly used for prostate surgery.

There are two main types of IGS: fluoroscopy-guided surgery and ultrasound-guided surgery. Fluoroscopy is a type of X-ray that can be used to create real-time images of the body. Ultrasound uses sound waves to create images of the body.

IGS has many benefits over traditional, open surgery. IGS is less invasive, so there is less pain and scarring. IGS also has a shorter recovery time.

The main disadvantage of IGS is that it can be more expensive than traditional surgery.

Benefits of robotic & image-guided surgery

Robotic and image-guided surgery offers many potential benefits over traditional surgery, including:

1. Increased precision: Robotic surgery is performed using very small instruments controlled by a computer. This allows the surgeon to make very precise movements, which can result in less tissue damage and less blood loss.

2. Reduced risk of complications: This surgery is associated with a lower risk of complications, such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, compared to traditional surgery.

3. Shorter hospital stay: Patients who undergo this surgery often have a shorter hospital stay and faster recovery than those who have traditional surgery.

4. Reduced pain and scarring: Robotic surgery is associated with less pain and scarring than traditional surgery.

5. Better cosmesis: It can often result in better cosmetic outcomes than traditional surgery due to the reduced risk of complications and the ability to make very precise movements.

If you are considering prostatectomy surgery, discuss your options with your surgeon to determine if robotic or image-guided surgery is right for you.

Answering some of your questions

What happens when a man removes his prostate?

Prostatectomy can cause serious adverse effects, including erectile dysfunction (impunity; trouble with obtaining erectile tissue). Besides this side effect, it is common with other prostate cancer treatments.

What is the purpose of a prostatectomy?

Generally, prostatectomy is performed for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. This drug is a combination of chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Radikal prostatectomy involves removing all the prostate lymph nodes to treat prostate cancers.

Is a prostatectomy major surgery?

Yes, prostatectomy is a major surgery that has potential risks and side effects. As with any other major surgery, you should discuss the risks and benefits of prostatectomy with your doctor before making a decision.

What are the long-term effects of a prostatectomy?

Prostatectomy can have many long-term effects, including urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. These effects can be distressing and impact a man’s quality of life. Therefore, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of prostatectomy with your doctor before making a decision.

What is a prostatectomy procedure?

Prostatectomy involves partial or complete removal of the prostate. This treatment could also help treat benign prostate hyperplasia. The most commonly used surgical procedure for prostatectomy is to make an incision and remove the gland.

How long does it take to recover from laparoscopic prostate surgery?

You may return to the job within three weeks of undergoing surgery. Nevertheless, recovery can be more complicated. Therefore, you should see a medical professional every day.

What is the best operation for enlarged prostate?

Most men may regard TURP as a solution if he or she has moderately severe urinary issues. Unlike traditional surgery, TURP is now widely used to address enlarged prostates, but there have also been other less invasive procedures developed, such as PVP, which uses a laser to vaporize the obstructing tissue.

Is laparoscopic surgery safe for the prostate?

Laparoscopic surgeries eliminate invasive incisions. In addition, your surgery may result in less pain and scarring, quicker recovery, and lower infections. Laparoscopic procedures for the removal of prostates have risen in popularity.

What is the latest procedure for enlarged prostate?

The Urolift System is an inexpensive surgical procedure that uses tiny implants to remove and hold enlarged prostate tissue to avoid blocking the urinary tract. The prostate tissues are not shaved or heated. This system can be an alternative to TURP or other more invasive surgeries.

How is laparoscopic surgery done for the prostate?

Laparoscopic surgery is usually done in an outpatient setting. General anesthesia will be used during the procedure. Small incisions will be made in the abdomen, and a laparoscope will be inserted. The prostate will be removed through the laparoscope.

What are the benefits of having a da Vinci prostatectomy?

Da Vinci prostatectomy is surgery with many benefits, including less pain, less blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery. This surgery uses robotic technology to remove the prostate gland and surrounding tissue.

What are the risks of da Vinci prostatectomy?

As with any surgery, there are risks associated with da Vinci prostatectomy, such as bleeding, infection, and urinary incontinence. These risks should be discussed with your doctor before having the surgery.

How is a radical prostatectomy performed?

Prostatectomy involves surgical procedures, including making and cleaning the prostate gland (sometimes the prostate gland). It is possible either through radical retropubic prostatectomy or suprapubic incisions (lower abdomen) or perineum (through the skin scrotum to the rectum).

How long does a radical prostatectomy take?

Prostatectomy takes around 1-2 hours. You will get anesthesia, so you’re completely asleep. The surgeon may make small cuts to the prostate. The surgeon removes the prostate through these cuts. The nerves that help with erection are also removed during this surgery.

What is the success rate of radical prostatectomy?

Radical prostatectomy has a high success rate in treating prostate cancer. It is estimated that around 80-90% of men are cured of prostate cancer after this surgery. The success rate is highest for men who have early-stage prostate cancer.

Can you still have an erection if your prostate is removed?

The nerve or blood vessels can damage during a prostate cancer procedure. After the operation, most women have no erection, and they have to have an erection. It’s a different time for everyone. It can take between three and three weeks to finish.

You still have the ability to orgasm. This is because the prostate produces a fluid that is mixed with sperm to create semen. This is why you may hear that men who have had a prostatectomy will not be able to ejaculate. You will still have an orgasm, but it may feel different, and there may be less semen.

What is the fastest way to recover from prostate surgery?

They’ll give you some medicine when it is needed. Then, when your time is up, you need to stand up and step out. Walks are crucial for rapid recovery and return to bowel activities. A physical therapist will help guide you through an at-home exercise program.

How can I avoid incontinence after prostate surgery?

There are a number of ways to help avoid incontinence after prostate surgery, including:

  • Doing pelvic floor muscle exercises regularly
  • Using pads or absorbent products
  • Avoiding caffeine and alcohol
  • Doing Kegel exercises
  • Using an electrical stimulator

What are the chances of recurrence after radical prostatectomy?

The chance of recurrence after radical prostatectomy is low, but it depends on the stage and grade of cancer. For men with early-stage cancer, the chances are less than 5%. For men with more advanced cancer, the chances are around 20%. Radiation therapy or hormone therapy may be recommended after surgery to help lower the chances of recurrence.

What is the life expectancy after prostate cancer surgery?

The life expectancy after prostate cancer surgery is generally good. For men with early-stage cancer, the 5-year survival rate is nearly 100%. For men with more advanced cancer, the 5-year survival rate is around 80%. However, it is important to remember that prostate cancer can come back even after successful treatment. Regular follow-up appointments with your doctor are important.

How long does the pain last after prostate surgery?

Usually, the incision can feel painful for about two weeks. Your doctor can prescribe pain medication. Your bladder may have been removed through an intravenous urination catheter within two to three days.

Is laparoscopic prostate surgery painful?

Typically the incision will feel pain in 1-3 days. Your doctor is going to prescribe painkillers. After surgery, you have to use an intravenous catheter to drain urine from the bladder once or twice. You can feel a muscle spasm while using a catheter to relieve pressure.

What is the difference between simple prostatectomy and radical prostatectomy?

The radical prostatectomy, where the prostate is removed, treats the underlying localized prostate disease. A simple prostate obstructing treatment is used to reduce urinary discomforts in men.

What is a pre-radical prostatectomy?

Our pre-radical prostatectomy nomogram is available in patients undergoing prostate cancer. The nomogram predicts the size, duration, and severity of cancer following radical prostatectomy, which involves the removal of prostate glands and lymph nodes.

What is the success rate of robotic surgery?

Increasing success rates with robotic surgeries also inspire new innovations. For example, in a survey conducted in a university laboratory, the success rate for robotic pyeloplasty was 94%.

What are the disadvantages of robotic-based surgery?

Disadvantages of robotic surgeries include: Only being available to hospitals with access to the technology and trained doctors. Your doctor may need surgery that uses more incisions to make more incisions. Nerve damage is an inevitable symptom. Only available to centers that have access to the specialized surgical staff. If complications occur, your doctor will likely require open procedures that use larger incisions.